Natural or river sand is dried and worn out rock particles and different grades or sizes depending on the wear level. Good sand, transported from a long distance is not readily accessible nowadays. These resources are also very quickly exhausted. It is therefore important to find a replacement for the natural sand on the river.

Right machines will better replace river sands with artificial sand. The gradation of sand is sufficient (particles should be correctly proportioned from 150 to 4.75 mm).

The sand would have less voids if fine particles are in the correct proportion. The needed amount of cement is lower. Such sand is going to be cheaper. The demand for generated fine concrete aggregates is the daily as fluvial sand can not meet the increasing demands of the building sector. It takes millions of years to produce natural river sand and it’s not refilling.

The cost of Natural River Sand has rocked and its reliable supply can not be assured because of its small supply. The use of imported sand becomes unavoidable under these circumstances.

In many parts of the world, river sand is not properly graded and has excessive silt and organic impurity, which may affect steel durability, whereas processed sand does not have silt or organic impurities

But many individuals in India have reservations about concrete/mortar consistency when artificial sand is being produced or used. For decades, quality concrete in India and abroad have been regularly produced from manufactured sand.

Fully built with artificial / made sand, the Pune- Mumbai expressway was completed.

Civil engineers, architects, designers, and developers accept that the existing river sand is mostly insufficient. It contains very high silt particles (as with philter sand).

It is less common for use in concrete due to the presence of other impurities such as tar, bones, coats, mica, and silt, etc. The weathering effect decreases the lives of the concrete by the deterioration of these materials.

Now, the government has banned river bed lifting sand.

Sand transport damages the highways.

The climate is influenced by taking sand from the bed by the river as the water table is dry and lower in the end.

Manufactured sand general requirements

The crushing power of all sand particle should be higher.

The particles should have a smooth surface texture.

It is important to ground the particle edges.

The fine ratio in sand should not be less than 30 per cent smaller than 600 microns.

No organic impurities should be present

For crushed sand, silt-in sand does not exceed 2 percent.

The allowed fines of less than 75 microns are not to be exceeded in manufactured sand.

The sand process is produced in three phases, with petroleum crushing into aggregates via VSI and then supplied to Rotofactor in order to crush aggregates into sand, to the grain size needed (as fines). Screening is performed to remove dust particles and sand washing removes very small particles inside. The final product meets all IS:383 specifications and can be used in concrete & building. Up to 400 Tons per hour (TPH) are available for the VSI plants.

Only VSI crusher / Rotopactor manufactured sand is in cubical and angular form. The sand created by other machine types is fluffy, which is difficult to operate. The Jaw crushers are commonly used to crush the metal / aggregates into stones. Generated from jaw-crusher, cone-crusher and roll-crusher sands, the dust is more dusty and flaky.

Provisions of IS Code

BIS guidance IS: 383-1970 for coarse and fine aggregates to be picked and to be tested. Generally, Sand shall be graded as Field I, Field II, Field III and Field IV (i.e. Coarser to Finer). Each zone has a seven designation. Gradation is done in line with sand use. They have 4.75, 2.36, 1,18 3, 600, 300, 150 and a saucepan, which consists of a total of 4.75 and 2.35 mm.

River sand Vastu Aspects

Vastu Shastra is more common nowadays and consultes many people with Vastu while building a house. According to Vastu Shastra, the construction material should be free of human or animal traces. The sand of the river includes human and animal bones. The coats are a sort of bone too. All these things present in the river sand are not easy to remove. The best option is therefore to use high quality artificial / crushed sand for people’s well-being.

Final remarks

In view of the acute sand scarcity, the huge shortfall in river sand quality , high costs, a greater effect on road damage and environmental impact, the construction industry is to start using the sand provided as an alternative to a large extent and to minimise environmental impacts by not using the river sand.

The Local Authorties / PWD / Govt shall, where appropriate, promote the use of sand made in public buildings by obliging it, wherever possible, to use manufactured sand with immediate effect where available. Opt for sand for construction.